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Finally, the retrieval of information from long-term memory can be disrupted because of decay within long-term memory (Eysenck, 2012).
Normal functioning, decay over time, and brain damage all affect the accuracy and capacity of memory.
The first experiments exploring this form of sensory memory were precisely conducted by George Sperling (1963) using the "partial report paradigm".
Subjects were presented with a grid of 12 letters, arranged into three rows of four.
It is out of cognitive control and is an automatic response.
With very short presentations, participants often report that they seem to "see" more than they can actually report.
These systems involve the purposeful intention of memory retrieval and storage, or lack thereof.
Declarative, or explicit, memory is the conscious storage and recollection of data (Graf & Schacter, 1985).
Modern estimates of the capacity of short-term memory are lower, typically of the order of 4–5 items; For example, in recalling a ten-digit telephone number, a person could chunk the digits into three groups: first, the area code (such as 123), then a three-digit chunk (456) and lastly a four-digit chunk (7890).
Declarative memory is usually the primary process thought of when referencing memory (Eysenck, 2012).
Non-declarative, or implicit, memory is the unconscious storage and recollection of information (Foerde & Poldrack, 2009).
Because this form of memory degrades so quickly, participants would see the display but be unable to report all of the items (12 in the "whole report" procedure) before they decayed.
This type of memory cannot be prolonged via rehearsal. Iconic memory is a fast decaying store of visual information; a type of sensory memory that briefly stores an image which has been perceived for a small duration.