And older people tend not to feel thirsty when they drink too little so their bodies don’t warn them to start drinking.

“On top of all that - as our kidneys get older we are less able to concentrate our urine to preserve fluid, so the body’s ability to regulate its fluid balance slowly reduces.

By putting the results of these tests through an ‘osmolarity equation’, health professionals can tell whether an older person is drinking enough fluid.

Lead researcher Dr Lee Hooper from UEA’s Norwich Medical School said: “Around 20 per cent of older people living in residential care are dehydrated, and that figure rises to around 40 per cent among those admitted to hospital.

Older people are particularly at risk of water-loss dehydration – which is caused by not drinking enough fluid.

Assaad M Soweid, MD, FACG, FASGE Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine, Endosonography and Advanced Therapeutic Endoscopy, Director, Endoscopy-Bronchoscopy Unit, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Lebanon Assaad M Soweid, MD, FACG, FASGE is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Gastroenterology, American College of Physicians, American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, American Medical Association Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.In patients in whom the latter is not possible, the addition of long-term chemotherapy has decreased the 10-year mortality rates from 94% to 10%.Morbidity is usually secondary to free rupture of the echinococcal cyst (with or without anaphylaxis), infection of the cyst, or dysfunction of affected organs.“Older people often drink less than younger people for a variety of reasons.Loss of routine and fewer social contacts can reduce drinking.Patient education is aimed at teaching the population at risk about the disease, its methods of transmission, its hosts, and the methods of prevention.Their life cycle involves only two hosts, one definitive and the other intermediate. The life cycle has three developmental stages, (1) the adult tapeworm in the definitive host, (2) eggs in the environment, and (3) the metacestode in the intermediate host. The metacestodes mature into the tapeworm in the definitive host and, in turn, release eggs into the environment.Ann Ouyang, MBBS Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine; Attending Physician, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Milton S Hershey Medical Center Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.Dehydration in older people could be accurately identified as part of routine blood testing according to new research from the University of East Anglia (UEA).Examples of dysfunction of affected organs are biliary obstruction, cirrhosis, bronchial obstruction, renal outflow obstruction, increased intracranial pressure secondary to a mass, and hydrocephalus secondary to cerebrospinal fluid outflow obstruction.In clinical cases of AE, the mortality rate is 50-60%.

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